What is carcinogenesis? Theories behind the cause of cancer, Initiation, Promotion and Progression of Cancer.

Cancer and carcinogens: Role of DNA damage, repair and mutations, viruses and carcinogens.

Benign and Malignant tumours, Tissue specificity,Hyperplasia and Precancerous legions.

Genome stability, Transcriptional controls in cancer, Suppression and activation of oncogenes during transformation of cell, Viral oncogenes, examples ERB, HER-2,rel, large T-antigen etc.

Cell cycle regulation and its alteration in cancer, Apoptosis, Necrosis, Signalling pathways in cancer involving p53, Ras and Rb, Growth factors.

Tumour cell dormancy in microenvironment, Cell-Cell interactions, Cell matrix interactions, Invasive characters, activity of Morphogens, Angiogenesis, Tumour Stem Cells.

Leukaemia: types of chromosomal translocations.
Hodgekin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s Lymphoma, HPV+ uterus cancer, Prostate cancer.

Immune responses in tumour growth, Immune suppression by tumours, Tumour specific antigens and Immune response, immunotherapy by immune modulations.

Cancer Vaccines- Whole cell vaccines, Peptide vaccines, Dendritic vaccines, Prophylaxis.

Tumour specific Biomarkers for efficient diagnosis and prognosis Imaging-Use of different Imaging Modalities for assessing molecular and functional aspects of Tumour cells.

DNA Microarrays – for individual specific analysis of target tumour, example-lymphochip

Metastasis detection- Techniques and Challenges

Nanotechnology in tumour therapy- Nano vectors for targeted drug delivery

Bioinformatics – Early diagnosis, Personalized therapy by comparing patient’s tumour genetic profile to data of genetic profiles, respective treatments and responses globally

Treatment of cancer symptoms at molecular level targeting specific molecules, drug discovery.

Extensive clinical research of proposed treatment strategies for ensuring safety, efficacy and early implementation.

miRNAs- role in tumours and use in therapy

Required Reading-

Molecular Biology of Cancer-Mechanisms, Targets and Therapeutics, Lauren Pecorino

Advances in Cancer Research, D. Avecedo

Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

https://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/wcr/2008/wcr_2008_5.pdf

Malignant Transformation of a Pre-Neoplastic Hamster Epidermal Cell Line by the EJ c-Ha-ras-Oncogene

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/46/3/1458.full-text.pdf

Molecular mechanisms in signal transduction and cancer

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299131/pdf/5-7400220.pdf

Cell Signalling and Cancer

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1535610803002162

Role of Special Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Metabolism

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218407/pdf/10.1177_1947601911423029.pdf

The epidermal growth factor receptor/Erb-B/HER family in normal and malignant breast biology.

http://www.ijdb.ehu.es/web/paper.php?doi=10.1387/ijdb.113396se

The role of the cell–cell interactions in cancer progression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598217.

Phenotypic screening in cancer drug discovery — past, present and future

http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v13/n8/full/nrd4366.html

Mechanisms of leukaemia translocations

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993924/pdf/nihms570233.pdf

Tumour Cells and the Onset of Cancer

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21590/

Oncogenic Mechanisms in Burkitt’s Lymphoma

http://perspectivesinmedicine.cshlp.org/content/4/2/a014282.full.pdf+html

Immune modulation of the tumour microenvironment for enhancing cancer immunotherapy

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782527/

Deciphering and Reversing Tumour Immune Suppression

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782392/

The cancer biomarker problem

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18385728/

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